Authored by Vladislav Sotirovic by way of Oriental Assessment:
If we’ve to make use of pressure, it’s as a result of we’re America.
We’re the indispensable nation.
(Madeleine Okay. Albright, February 1998)
As a matter of actual fact, regardless to the truth in international politics that the Chilly Struggle was over in 1989, Washington continued to drive towards the getting the standing of a worldwide hyperpower at any expense for the remainder of the world. The Balkans undoubtedly turned the primary sufferer in Europe of the previous however esthetically repacked American international imperialism. The US’ administration is a key participant over the past 25 years of the Balkan disaster brought on by the bloody destruction of ex-Yugoslavia by which Washington performed an important position in three specific historic instances:
- Solely because of the US’ administration (extra exactly because of the final US’ ambassador to Yugoslavia, Warren Zimmermann), a Bosnian-Herzegovinian President Alija Izetbegović (the writer of the 1970 Islamic Declaration) rejected already agreed Lisbon Settlement about peaceable decision of the Bosnian crises which was signed by the official representatives of the Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks in February 1992. Alija Izetbegović was a type of three signatories. The settlement was reached underneath the auspices of the European Group (the EC, later the European Union) that was represented by the British diplomat Lord Carrington and the Portuguese ambassador José Cutileiro. Nevertheless, underneath the US’ safety, a Bosnian-Herzegovinian Bosniak-Croat Authorities declared independence on March third, 1992 which native Serbs decisively opposed. Subsequently, two warmongers, Warren Zimmermann and Alija Izetbegović pushed Bosnia-Herzegovina into the civil conflict which stopped solely in November 21st, 1995 by signing the Dayton Accords in Ohio (Slobodan Milošević, Invoice Clinton, Alija Izetbegović and Franjo Tuđman).
- It was precisely the US’ administration which crucially blessed the ethnic cleaning of the Serbs from the Republic of Serbian Krayina dedicated by Croatia’s police and military forces (together with and neo-Nazi Ustashi formations) on August four−fifth, 1995. For the belief of this legal operation (beneath the key code Storm/Oluja) Washington gave to Zagreb all logistic, political, diplomatic and army help. As a consequence, round 250,000 Croatia’s Serbs left their houses in two days which have been shortly occupied by the Croats.
- South Serbia’s Autonomous Province of Kosovo-Metochia was firstly occupied in June 1999 by the NATO/KFOR’ forces and later in February 2008 politically separated from its motherland when Albanian-dominated Kosovo’s Parliament proclaimed the formal independence primarily as a direct consequence of the Serbophobic coverage by the US’s administration of President Invoice Clinton and his warmongering hawk Secretary of State Madeleine Okay. Albright. As we speak, Kosovo, besides its northern half, is ethnically cleansed from the Serbs and reworked right into a mafia state with a silent blessing by Washington and the remainder of the Western gangsters from the NATO and the EU who acknowledged its quasi-independence.
Right here is essential to emphasize that, principally, in the course of the Invoice Clinton’ administration, the US’ overseas coverage in regard to the Balkans (ex-Yugoslavia) was primarily designed and directed by Madeleine Okay. Albright who turned a chief US’ conflict legal on the very finish of the 20th century. Who was Mrs. Albright – the writer of Madam Secretary: A Memoir, New York: Speak Miramax Books, 2003, 562 pages. Madeleine Okay. Albright was born in Czechoslovakia in 1937. She was confirmed because the 64th US’ Secretary of State from 1997 to 2001. Her profession within the US’ authorities included positions within the Nationwide Safety Council and as US’ ambassador to the United Nations. The very best-ranking warmonger feminine hawk within the historical past of the US’ Authorities was telling an unforgetable whitewashed story of lies in her memoirs of the US’ imperialism on the flip of the 21st century. She was the primary lady within the US’ historical past to be appointed to the submit of Secretary of State (Minister of Overseas Affairs). For eight years through the first and second Invoice Clinton’s phrases, she succeeded drastically to damage America’s picture of a democratic and freedom preventing nation primarily as a consequence of her direct and essential involvement into the US-led NATO’s aggression on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (the FRY) in 1999 composed by Serbia and Montenegro that was the primary aggression of this group in its 50 years lengthy historical past of the preparation for the invasion of Russia. The aggression lasted for 78 days from March 24th to June 10th, 1999 and was one of the crucial brutal and barbaric within the trendy historical past of the world breaking all worldwide legal guidelines, guidelines of warfare and, most necessary, the Constitution and rules of the UNO. Madeleine Okay. Albright tried in her memoirs to whitewash her extraordinarily necessary and even essential participation within the post-Chilly Struggle US’ coverage of imperialism however primarily her focal position within the preparation and conduction of the US/NATO’s unprecedented struggle on the FRY as being one of the crucial influential policy-makers in her adopted nation. The Madam Secretary’s memoirs are firstly the story of a lady of nice warmongering character with a captivating expertise to lie and whitewash the reality. Her memoirs are certainly a helpful contribution to the political historical past of aggressive diplomacy of the undertaking of the US’ international hegemony after the collapse of the united states. However who was her mentor?
If we’re talking concerning the US’ overseas coverage, the elemental query is what are the US coverage’s pursuits and its implications in each the Balkans and Europe.
The US’ involvement within the Balkans and Europe
The achievement of a New World Order after 1990 is being examined for a while in Washington. We’ve got to take into account that for some first 20 years after the top of the Chilly Warfare, the strongest army and financial energy, the leaders of the NATO and the UNO, the initiators of the worldwide peacekeeping missions and negotiations within the areas of „failed states“ through which they provoked the crises and wars, particularly on the Balkans, the champions towards the worldwide terrorism and crime that was a response to their soiled overseas coverage of unmasked imperialism and international hegemony, have been the USA. However, the US’ pursuits within the Balkans can’t be understood aside from a bigger image of the American pursuits in Europe typically.
There are lots of American scientists and politicians who argued that a management in Europe will both be American or it won’t be, since France and Germany (the axis-powers of the EU) weren’t too robust to take over and Germany was nonetheless within the 1990s too preoccupied with the results of its reunification (i.e., the absorption of the DDR). Nevertheless, the current (on November 11th, 2018) French President Emmanuel Macron’s initiative to create a joint European Military exhibits that in all probability the Europeans lastly turned sufficient matured to take care of safety in their very own house by themselves however not anymore beneath the umbrella of the US-led NATO. The query, in essence, just isn’t if, however what sort of management the US has and may have within the case that the present post-Chilly Warfare’s worldwide relations usually are not going to be drastically modified? On this respect, the US have to be conscious that the perfect management is the one shared with different companions, on this case with the EU/NATO, extra particularly France, Germany, and Britain however, in fact, Russia should be significantly taken into the consideration too. With the involvement of Russia into a standard European safety system on the bases of equal reciprocity, friendship and partnership, the ultimate purpose can be to acquire a standard imaginative and prescient and an environment friendly coordination in battle administration, in addition to in political and financial cooperation. At such a method, the instances of violent destructions and civil wars, for instance on the territory of ex-Yugoslavia, might be prevented for positive.
The US’ political analysts are eager to recommend that the American presence in Europe shouldn’t be considered a contest, however fairly as part of the transatlantic partnership between the 2 continents, in addition to a necessity demonstrated by the unhappy expertise within the former Yugoslavia. In line with official Washington, the NATO’s intervention in each Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1995 and Kosovo in 1999 (in each instances towards the Serbs) beneath the US’ management was the one credible motion together with many initiatives taken by the worldwide group. Nevertheless, on the opposite aspect, army intervention is in lots of instances creating extra political and safety issues for an extended time period. It’s comprehensible that the US can’t help apathetically to the collapse of nations very important to their very own curiosity however such precept is legitimate to be utilized for any nice energy too. Apart from, regional instability solely expands, partaking different areas and creating new confrontations. Thus, the financial help provided to some nations, and the army one provided to others exhibits that the US formally consider within the regional stability as an enforcer of the worldwide stability however in actuality provided that such stability is put beneath the umbrella of Washington’s pursuits and advantages. The case of Kosovo is, in all probability, the most effective instance of such apply: by bringing a proper stability this province of Serbia is put on the similar time beneath the complete Western (primarily American) political management and financial exploitation.
In supporting the NATO’s enlargement, there’s a hesitation in treating all aspirant nations in a non-discriminatory style. And that, as a result of pursuits are extra essential than international safety, could be the rationale. The advocates of the „Pax Americana’s“ view of the worldwide safety would publically say that they don’t seem to be propagating the US because the savior of the world, or the world’s policeman, however they’re simply probably the most fervent supporters of the worldwide peace and stability. Nevertheless, within the apply they’re working oppositely: as many as conflicts and insecurity points on the planet, there are extra possibilities and sensible alternatives for Washington to develop into the regional policeman and international savior of the order. Of their relationship with different NATO’s nations, the USA regard the method of integration within the Euro-Atlantic area (i.e., the world of the US’ management and administration) as a two-way road during which every companion wants to perform its duties. An addition to these is, in fact, the geostrategic place (Turkey as an alternative of Greece, for example, within the 1974 Cyprus disaster) and brief, medium and long-term declarative guarantees just like the financial gratification of safety which may on the finish to be turned to its reverse aspect. For example, the US’ providing army, political and monetary help to the nations of East-Central and South-East Europe as a imply to construct up their safety defend towards „aggressive“ Russia could be simply reworked into their very insecurity actuality coming from the US’ imperialistic coverage towards Russia as there have been already the instances with Georgia in 2008 and Ukraine in 2014 because the „Pax Americana’s“ strategy in worldwide relations is as its countereffect simply frightening the Russian (and Chinese language) counteraction in enhancing its personal nuclear and different army potentials as Vladimir Putin precisely careworn throughout his electoral campaigns.
The US’ geopolitical technique by Zbig
(Vietnam) warfare felony Henry Kissinger (ex-US’ Secretary of State), summarized the post-Chilly Conflict’s worldwide relations from the American geopolitical viewpoint:
„Geopolitically, America is an island off the shores of the massive landmass of Eurasia, whose assets and inhabitants far exceed these of the USA. The domination by a single energy of both of Eurasia’s two principal spheres – Europe or Asia – stays a superb definition of strategic hazard for America, Chilly Conflict or no Chilly Struggle. For such a grouping would have the capability to outstrip America economically and, in the long run, militarily“.
It isn’t shocking that within the 1990s there have been raised voices in Washington which required that the US has to discover a method of dominating Eurasia at any affordable value. The US’ neocon warmongering hawks, like Zbigniew Brzezinski, acknowledged that the world of the enlarged Center East (with the Balkans, North Africa, and Central Asia) is from the strategical viewpoint, economically, ideologically and above all geopolitically on the middle of the Eurasian concern. Nevertheless, the US’ neocon hawks’ a lot wider international geopolitical goals which have been coming nearer to the purpose to proceed domination within the Center East have been launched in the course of the Invoice Clinton’s presidency because of a wider shift within the American overseas coverage’s profile led by Secretary of State Madeleine Okay. Albright (“Madam Secretary”) and her extraordinarily Russophobic mentor Zbigniew Brzezinski (often known as Zbig).
Warsaw-born Zbig (1928−2017) was a focal character within the US’ overseas coverage’s elite institution since President Jimmy Carter’s administration during which he was a Nationwide Safety Advisor. In the course of the Ronald Reagan’s administration, Zbig was the primary mediator between Washington and its shoppers in Afghanistan – the anti-Soviet Taliban forces and Osama bin-Laden with whom Zbig has a number of widespread photographs (in 1979) on which he’s coaching Osama to function with simply donated American weapons to battle the Soviets. Additional, Zbig has a fantastic affect on the primary Invoice Clinton’s administration and he was on the similar time an early advocate of the NATO’s eastward enlargement (began in 1999). It’s assumed that it was precisely Zbig who was instrumental in getting the US’ President Invoice Clinton to commit himself to this course of the American imperialism in 1994. Moreover, Brzezinski’s affect on the US’ overseas coverage turned stronger in the course of the second Clinton’s administration by means of a Secretary of State Madeleine Okay. Albright – his former pupil at Columbia College. It’s value to notice that Albright was working beneath his supervision in Carter’s administration. If we’ve to summarize Zbig’s chief imperatives of the US’ imperialistic international coverage and geostrategy of the making America world’s hegemon, they will be as follows:
- To stop collusion and keep safety among the many US’ vassal states (the NATO/EU).
- To maintain tributaries pliant and guarded.
- To maintain the barbarians (the Russians and their supporters) from coming collectively.
- To consolidate and perpetuate the prevailing geopolitical pluralism in Eurasia by manipulation so as to forestall the emergence of a hostile coalition that would lastly try and problem the US’ supremacy on the earth.
- People who have to be divided and ultimately dominated are Germany, Russia, Japan, Iran, and China.
The American direct and notorious participation within the destruction of ex-Yugoslavia in 1991−1995 adopted by the 1998−1999 Kosovo’s Struggle might be understood, subsequently, because the steps within the realization of Zbig’s geopolitical technique of creating America international hegemon. The US-led bombing of Serbia and Montenegro from March to June 1999 (78 days) was carried out by enlarged NATO and the UNO was solely referred to as on the finish to sanctify the ensuing colonial coverage of Washington. The aggression on Serbia and Montenegro was formally justified by a reference to the TV-show plight of Kosovo’s Albanians, creating on the similar time the brand new doctrine of the „humanitarian imperialism“. We now have to remember on this place that the Yugoslav wars within the 1990s have been fought in a geographical space which is the essential courtyard of the Eurasian continent that’s as such opening a direct option to the ex-Soviet republics on the shores of the Caspian and the power sources they management. However, Kosovo’s Struggle turned for the US the real precursor of its later invasion of Iraq in 2003.
„Madam Secretary“ was a agency advocate of bombing Serbia and Serbs in Washington primarily because of the direct affect by infamous Russophobe Zbig who noticed the Balkan Serbs as „little Russians“ and the Balkan wars of the destruction of ex-Yugoslavia as a testing floor for the US’ coverage all through the entire Caspian and Central Asian space. Nevertheless, as well as, being an advocate for the US’ oil corporations wishing to determine their enterprise on the territory of ex-Soviet Union within the Caucasus and Central Asia, Zbig regarded the American political and geostrategic supremacy on this area as an important goal of the US’ overseas coverage within the 1990s. To be able to accomplish his goal, amongst different manipulations and devices, Zbig championed the American help to the Islamic Pakistan, the Taliban Afghanistan (until 9/11) and the Islamic resurgence in Saudi Arabia and even Iran.
Multidimensional facet of safety
It’s true that globalization, stability, and safety supply to the nations a higher capability to cooperate and concentrate on the financial prosperity of its residents however in follow, this notably means rather more essential companies and extra money for the US’ financial system and residents. Right now, safety has multidimensional features. If in the course of the Chilly Conflict safety solely had a military-political element, right now it has gained a brand new facet – the financial one. The non-military points of safety comprise every little thing from macroeconomic stability to environmental well being. The proponents of the US’ international hegemony will on a regular basis argue that the place there’s a concord (established by the US) and well-being the probabilities of conflicts to erupt are smaller and the achieve is solely monetary and financial (primarily for the US).
There’s, in fact, a mixture between curiosity per se and their penalties. For instance, the case of Macedonia could possibly be fascinating. Macedonia on the first look advantages of the US’ army presence on her territory since 1991 as it’s a geostrategic spot within the Balkans of the very best significance. As a matter of reality, this army presence maintained Macedonia’s financial degree at a better normal than a few of the different nations within the space as much as 2001, even though was nonetheless the poorest of the previous Yugoslav six republics affected by two financial embargos by Greece in 1991−1993. Macedonia was illustrated until 2001, particularly by the Western media, as being a hit story in battle prevention and peace upkeep primarily because of the presence of the US/NATO’s army troops. Nevertheless, in 2001 erupted inter-ethnic battle between the Slavic Macedonians and the native Albanians (supported by the Kosovo Liberation Military) what introduced the query of the US/NATO’s effectivity within the area.
The NATO’s eastward enlargement is a specific story of Zbig’s geostrategic designs towards his everlasting enemy – Russia. It’s a proven fact that simply earlier than the NATO’s aggression on Serbia and Montenegro in 1999, this army group accepted because the member states three East-Central European nations: Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic (the subsequent eastward enlargement was in 2004). Subsequently, the southern flank of the NATO between Hungary and Greece turned now interrupted solely by the territory of ex-Yugoslavia. Subsequently, such state of affairs gave NATO a substantial strategic curiosity in controlling the Balkans the place the Serbs have been probably the most quite a few and geostrategically essential nation. Nevertheless, as a direct impact of the NATO’s eastward enlargement, the Iron Curtain was moved additional to the east and nearer to Russia’s borders with all spectrum of the anticipated and sudden penalties of such anti-Russian Drang nach Osten. Now, the Iron Curtain, as soon as dividing Germany, it got here in 1999 to run down the japanese borders of Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary, ending on the state-borders of the ex-Yugoslav republics, now unbiased states. The crux of the matter is that a decade-long means of the NATO’s eastward enlargement turned originally of 1999 blocked within the Balkans by the Serbs – the one ex-Yugoslav nation firmly opposing a NATO’s membership. Subsequently, it was precisely Washington to imagine the position of main the NATO to the brand new anti-Russian entrance and borders. That was the essential purpose why the Serbs needed to be bombed in 1999 and Kosovo occupied by the US-led NATO’s troops within the type of the UNO KFOR. What regards this challenge, each Zbig and „Madam Secretary“ have been clearly talking via the mouth of the US’ President Invoice Clinton: the steadiness (the US’ management) within the Balkans might solely be established if the EU and the USA do for this area what it was finished for Europe after the WWII and Central Europe after the Chilly Conflict – occupation and economic-financial exploitation inside the formal framework of the NATO’s and EU’ (the USA) enlargement.
The brutal enlargement of the NATO could be very seen since 1999 and even anticipated if we’re considering the ultimate goals of the US’ overseas coverage in Eurasia framed by a infamous overseas coverage gangster – Zbigniew Brzezinski. As a consequence, the EU goes to proceed to be America’s essential colonial companion within the NATO’s preparations for the warfare of aggression towards Russia and most likely on the similar time China. Subsequently, there shall be a necessity for a lot work and a standard will to beat violence, injustice, and struggling so as to obtain a worldwide safety with out the hegemonic dominance by any nice energy.
Endnotes: Andrew J. Bacevich, American Empire: The Realities and Penalties of U.S. Diplomacy, Cambridge, Massachusetts−London, England: Harvard College Press, 2002, the web page earlier than 1.  On the Western strategy a few trendy Yugoslav historical past, see in Allcock B. John, Explaining Yugoslavia, London: Hurst & Co, 2000; David Gowland, Richard Dunphy, Charlotte Lythe, The European Mosaic: Modern Politics, Economics and Tradition, Third Version, Harlow, Essex, England: Pearson Schooling Restricted, 2006, Part 5.three Yugoslavia.  Concerning the destruction of ex-Yugoslavia and notably on the civil conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina, see in Jelena Guskova, Istorija jugoslovenske krize 1990−2000, Beograd: Izdavački grafički atelje “M”, 2003.  Вељко Ђурић Мишина (уредник), Република Српска Крајина. Десет година послије, Београд: „Добра воља“, 2005, 48.  On this situation, see extra in Zoran Anđelović, Miroslav Marković (eds.), Days of Terror (Within the Presence of the International Forces), Belgrade: Middle for Peace and Tolerance, 2000; Dragan Kojadinović (ed.), March Pogrom in Kosovo and Metohija (March 17−19, 2004) With a Survey of Destroyed and Endangered Christian Cultural Heritage, Belgrade: Ministry of Tradition of the Republic of Serbia−Museum in Priština (displaced), 2004.  Pierre Pean, Sébastien Fontenelle, Kosovo une guerre “juste” pour créer un etat mafieux, Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard, 2013.  This text is a constructive-critical contribution to the brand new, revised and up to date version of the memoirs of the “Madam Secretary”.  Concerning the post-Chilly Warfare’s US’ overseas coverage, particularly by means of the prism of the “Bush Doctrine”, see in David P. Forsythe, Patrice C. McMahon, Andrew Wedeman (eds.), American Overseas Coverage in a Globalized World, New York−London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2006.  A few typical American strategy on the case of Yugoslavia’s destruction within the 1990s, see in Susan L. Woodward, Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution after the Chilly Warfare, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Establishment, 1995. Nevertheless, the focal lack of such books is the truth that an important US/EU/NATO’ position in creating Balkan tragedy and Yugoslavia’s chaos is omitted.  Hannes Hofbauer, Eksperiment Kosovo: Povratak kolonijalizma, Beograd: Albatros Plus, 2009.  There are well-known phrases by Theodor Roosevelt uttered in December 1899: “Of course, our whole national history has been one of expansion”.  John Rees, Imperialism and Resistance, New York−London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2006, 18.  Ibid., 19−20.  Concerning the difficulty of a strategic surroundings from the Adriatic to the Caspian, see in Stefano Bianchini (ed.), From the Adriatic to the Caucasus: The Dynamics of (De)Stabilization, Ravenna: Longo Editore Ravenna, 2001.  In another way to all different American warmongers and imperialistic hawks, Zbig favors the alliance with the Shia Islamic Republic of Iran.  On international safety, see in Peter Hough, Understanding International Safety, Third version, New York−London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2005.